What is the reach of design?
In Design for the Real World, Victor Papanek famously claimed that "design can reduce pollution, overcrowding, starvation, obsolescence and other modern ills." From aesthetics to usability, ethics to equity, it's essential to consider what kinds of problems design can solve – and perhaps more significantly, what problems it can't solve. What can designers do? Do we have agency but not direct power? Are empowered designers suited for operations, or are designers better at making and breaking rules than following them? In this brief talk, we explore the boundaries and opportunities of design.